The Location of Tekirdağ


Tekirdağ is situated on the north west of Turkey and northern of Sea of Marmara being one of three provinces which has all of its land in Thrace. Besides, it is also one of three provinces which has two coasts on two seas. The province has an area of 6.313 km2 and it is surrounded by Istanbul on east, Kırklareli on north, Edirne on West, Çanakkale on south-west, Sea of Marmara on south. It has a coast of 2.5 km on Black Sea on north-east.

Tekirdağ being the biggest city in the southern part of Ergene basin is situated on the side of a wide gulf where the roads from South Ergene andNorthern reach to Sea of Marmara.

Geological Structure

The geological structure of Tekirdağ is quite young. While the territory of the province was covered with seas in I. time, it took the current shape in IV. time. While Anatolia and Thrace rose, Aegean, Marmara and Black Sea basins sank. The sand is composed of cemented sandstones including clay.

There are various morphological units in Thrace region being on the south-eastern part of Balkan Peninsula. In Tekirdağ region the mountainous ones of these morphological units are Istranca (Yıldız) mountainous group on north and the mountains of Ganos (Işık) and Koru on south. Between these two mountainous terrains, there are peneplain terrains with gentle, medium and sometimes perpendicular slope divided by the branches of Ergene river and high hilly and dip slope areas locating on south and partly middle parts.

Mountains

Tekir Mountains forming the most important elevation of the province run in series (60 km) starting from Kumbağ, 12 km away from Tekirdağ, till Gelibolu isthmus. The highest part of these mountains is the mountain of Ganos (Işık). The eastern part of the province is less high. Some ridges are seen on slightly curly plains. One of them runs around Çorlu in east west direction. This ridge bordering Ergene basin and functioning as watershed joins Istranca on east and the booms of Tekirdağ on north. Istrancas (Yıldız Mountains) start from Çerkezköy and rise increasingly by going to the north.

Lowlands

The interior of the province has wide and fertile lowlands covering broad-based valleys of the rivers. The most important ones of them are the lowland of Ergene which broadens increasingly along the seam of Ergene in the direction of west starting from Çerkezköy and the lowlands of Hayrabolu and Çene which run along alluvial seams of Hayrabolu and Çene (Beşiktepe) valens flowing into the river of Ergene.

The narrow and small coastal lowlands running along the coasts of Marmara was formed by cumulating of materials along the coast brought by rivers.

Climate

If temperature averages and general moistness index are taken into account, the climate of Tekirdağ is described as mild semi-moist climate. So long as going into interior zones from coastal zones, minor differences can be seen with the effect of the distance from sea and elevation.

Along the coast of Marmara Sea, characteristics of mediterranean climate, in which summer is dry and hot and winter is warm and rainy, are seen. However, summer drought has lightened with the effect of black sea climate. Snowfall is usual in winter. So long as going into interior zones, the characteristics of semi-continental climate, in which summer is drier and winter is colder, become clear.

Vegetation Cover

As receiving more rain, the northern slopes of Istranca group running to Saray on the north part of Tekirdağ are covered with beech forests. In this region, rhododendrons form underbrush cover. So long as going into southern slopes, it is seen that oaks and hornbeams take the place of beech as a result of decreasing of rain.

When we go down the basin of Ergene, oak, hornbeam, blackthorn and elm groups rarely stand out near the settlements. These small group of trees is the evidence that The interior part of Thrace isn’t a steppe area. The region of Thrace got current stepped area look as a result of forest destruction in order to gain agricultural land. The species of poplar and willow are common on bottom lands and valleys situated in this part (anthropogenic steppe).

While hornbeam, oak, linden trees and dense underbrush cover are dominant on the northern slopes of Ganos Mountains on south, dry forests and maquis groups appear on the southern slopes as a result of rain decreasing. Oak and Calabrian pine forests are dominant with maquis groups on the mountains of Koru.